The cotton aphid is found in a variety of habitats throughout the San Joaquin Valley. Management of this insect will in all likelihood require the integration of every management tactic available. In an attempt to enhance one management tactic, biological control, a multi- agency cooperative project was established in 1996. The long-term objective of this project is to build a natural enemy complex for the cotton aphid using natural enemies not currently found in California. This complex should complement…


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The cotton stalk management study o f one-pass stalk embedding as a key component to a reduced tillage system and controlled traffic systems for cotton is in its fourth year of evaluation. The study was extended one extra year to verify yield results obtained in the 1998 crop year. The original hypothesis included reduced energy, improved soil condition, no disease differences, no nutrient differences and no yield differences. Of these hypothesis all are true except for yield differences. In years 1 and 2, no yield difference could be measured between stalk embedding and normal stalk disposal systems. However…

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W.C. Hofmann, L.M. Carter, and N. Hudson

Objectives: Covercrops have been used for many years to improve soil quality, as a source of nutrients, improve water infiltration, suppress weeds, harbor beneficial insects, control nematodes, etc. Little work however has been directed towards their use in a cotton rotation. This study was initiated to investigate four fall-planted covercrop species on subsequent cotton growth.

Procedures: Fescue, annual rye, hairy vetch, and subterranean clover were planted on beds on November 14, 1989. The field was irrigated…

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W.C. Hofmann, L.M. Carter, and N. Hudson

OBJECTIVES: Minimum tillage has received attention in recent years as a technique to reduce production costs, improve soil quality, and reduce erosion. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of minimum tillage on cotton growth and soil quality.

PROCEDURES: The 1990 study was conducted at the U.S. Cotton Research Station in Shafter, CA. The treatments were established in a barley field prior to grain harvest. The~barley had…

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W.C. Hofmann, L.M. Carter, P.E. Keeley, and L.F. Elliott J.H. Chesson, R.J. Thullen, D. Ballard, and N. Goodell

OBJECTIVES: To develop the criteria for ‘best practice’ cotton production systems. To test experimental component subsystems and the interrelationship of cotton production subsystems including rotational crops. To demonstrate for technology transfer ‘best practice’ systems.

PROCEDURE: Four systems were identified for inclusion in a field study resulting from a factorial of two systems categories: row spacing and tillage. The ‘best practice’ row spacing was selected as 30 inch as compared…

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L. M. Carter and J. H. Chesson

OBJECTIVES: To develop apparatus and instrumentation for field scale survey-measuring salinity based upon theories developed by the USDA Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA.

PROCEDURE: The probe design was based upon earlier reported research by Carter. In concept the probe compacts a ribbon of soil .75 inch wide at the depth of operation using a curved wedge…

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Wheel Path Recovery

OBJECTIVES: To determine the degradation of wheel paths (roads)
over time with normal tillage. To determine number of years of normal tillage and cropping to return soil to original or comparable state.

PROCEDURE: The paths to be studies were created in 1984 and used
for conduct of system studies with the wide tractive research vehicle (WTRV) until 1989.

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Cover Crops for Annual Cropping Systems

OBJECTIVES: To identify and research cover crops suitable for use in cotton
production systems (major emphasis is to determine the beneficial aspects of cover crops in managing weeds in cotton).

PROCEDURES: Five cover crops (annual ryegrass, barley, hairy vetch, subterranean
clover, and tall fescue) were seeded into four row plots that were 65 feet long
on ll/7 /89.

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