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Universal Traders LLC

Universal Trading LLC was incorporated in the year 2008, with a vision of catering exports of Farm Product Commodities from United States. The primary focus of the company was Almonds and other kind of nuts to begin with, where the company has expertise now. The company now intends to extend their core focus on Cotton while expanding their current exposure in nuts and allied products. The company has a forte and advantage of its channel partners in Indian Peninsula & entire Asian sub-continent including People’s Republic of China.

Baker, Peterson & Franklin, CPA, LLP

A full-service accounting and consulting firm in Fresno with a 45+ person staff. BPF is a progressive firm that has grown into one of the largest locally-owned accounting firms in the Central Valley. We believe our continued growth and success is a direct result of providing clients with effective, efficient, and responsive service. Our size allows us to provide a variety of services and specialties, including agriculture, food & beverage processing, auto dealerships, closely-held and family businesses, tax and estate planning, business consulting and auditing.


R. J. Thullen and P. E. Keeley

OBJECTIVES: To identify effective systems for the control of annual morningglory in cotton.

PROCEDURES: Several treatments were applied to field plots at the USDA Cotton Research Station in 1989 and 1990 for the control of annual morningglory in cotton. Herbicides were first applied to planting beds at cotton planting in early April and incorporated with a mulcher operated 5 em or 10 em deep in the soil. Rates for these early treatments were 2. 0, 2. 0, and 1. 6 lbs/A, respectively, for cyanazine, methazole, and prometryn. Post emergence and layby treatments were applied as directed sprays to weeds in the drill row at the base of the cotton plants. Post-emergence treatments began soon after the middle of May, whereas the layby treatments were not applied until the end of June. Rates were 1.0 lb/A for cyanazine, 0.5 to 1.5 lbs/A for methazole, and 0.7 to 1.6 lbs/A for prometryn. Although all plots were conventionally cultivated, some were cultivated with special equipment (rods/torsion weeders/spring weeders) to remove small morningglory in the drill row of cotton. When rods were used, plots were cultivated in opposite directions. This cultivation and handweeding were both performed near the end of May. See Table 1 for more information about treatments.

RESULTS: The most successful herbicidal treatment for the control of annual morningglory in cotton was postemergence applications of 1.0 lb/A cyanazine + 2.0 lbs/A MSMA in early June (Table 1). Applications of cyanazine + MSMA to cotton at layby in late June was also helpful in reducing yield losses of cotton. The only other herbicide that provided significant postemergence activity was prometryn. Prometryn incorporated 10 em deep provided the most consistent control of the soil-incorporated herbicides. But control with this treatment was incomplete based on both visual control ratings and harvested cotton (Table 1). Although the cultivator equipped with rods removed many small morningglory plants in the drill row of cotton, too many survived. Based on the results of the handweeding treatment in late May of 1989 and 1990, the weed-free period for morningglory will probably have to extend at least until the middle of June.

FUTURE PLANS: A manuscript of this two year study is being prepared. A second study will begin on the area of this morningglory nursery in the spring of 1991.

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P. E. Keeley and R. J. Thullen

OBJECTIVES: To determine why control of nightshade with prometryn declined with time in a field study conducted in 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1989.

PROCEDURES: Both seed and soil samples were collected from field plots previously untreated and treated with prometryn. Treated plots were those where rates of prometryn from 1.5 to 2.0 lbs ai/A originally controlled black nightshade in 1985 and 1987 but failed to control nightshade in 1988 and 1989. Untreated plots were the weedy-check plots of the 1985 to 1989 study that had never been treated with a herbicide. Soil samples from the field in early 1990 were treated with 2.00 ppm prometryn and bioassayed in the greenhouse with black nightshade at weekly intervals for 7 weeks. Seed from field plots, which had been collected earlier, was planted into soil freshly treated with 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 ppm prometryn.

In addition to the experiments described above, a final field study was initiated on April 18, 1990 to determine if nightshade had developed some resistance to prometryn or if previously treated soil was now degrading prometryn at some accelerated rate. Plots, 19 m long by 4 m wide, which were treated during 1985 to 1989, were treated in a perpendicular direction with a 4 m band of 2.0 lbs/A of prometryn. The soil was left flat after treating and the
herbicide was incorporated into the soil with a mulcher operated at 10 em deep. The area was sprinkle irrigated at 3 to 5 day intervals for the following 36 days. Total sprinkling time was 35 hours, and total amount of water applied was 9 em. Black nightshade seedlings were counted in treated and untreated strips of all plots 4 weeks after treatment, and visual weed control ratings were recorded at 4 and 6 weeks after treatment.

RESULTS: Degradation of prometryn in the greenhouse appeared to occur at approximately equal rates in soil collected from field plots previously treated or untreated with prometryn. Residues from applications of 2 ppm of prometryn killed all nightshade seedlings for 3 weeks. When some plants began surviving at 5 and 7 weeks after treatment, dry matter production of nightshade was similar in soils previously treated and untreated with prometryn. Nightshade seedlings from seed collected from plots treated with prometryn responded similarly to increasing rates of prometryn under greenhouse conditions as seed collected from untreated plots. Herbicidal activity was sufficiently great from applications of as little as 0.25 to 0.50 ppm to kill most seedlings, and very little growth occurred at 1.0 ppm of prometryn.

When prometryn was applied in perpendicular strips 4 m wide across plots previously untreated and treated with prometryn, no black nightshade seedlings survived for 4 weeks (Table 2). Even at 6 weeks after treatment, visual control ratings of weed seedlings were still 99 to 100%. The fact that control in 1990 was complete for 6 weeks indicates that nightshades have not developed appreciable amounts of resistance to prometryn and degradation of prometryn probably occurred at normal rates. Furthermore, the excellent control obtained indicates that the herbicide was not readily leached from the upper 2.5 em of soil where the majority of the weed seeds germinate. Since efforts failed to provide evidence for the movement of the herbicide with water, the development of weed resistance to prometryn, or accelerated degradation of this herbicide in soil, increasing weed populations were suspected of contributing greatly to the declining nightshade control from prometryn. It is suspected that, if numbers of seedlings estimated ha-1 in Table 2 represents only 10% or less of the soil seed reservoir, weed seed populations have increased from 85 million in 1985 to as much as 800 million in 1990.

FUTURE PLANS: A manuscript reporting the results of this study has been written and was submitted for consideration for publication in Weed Technology Journal.

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